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研究称牡蛎为诺如病毒人际传播途径

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发表于 2015-9-15 09:25:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式


一项新研究表明,牡蛎或是诺如病毒(Norovirus)人际传播的重要途径。

诺如病毒,又被成为“船舶流感”、“肠胃流感”或“冬季呕吐流感”,是世界上引发胃肠痛最常见的病因之一。大部分病患痛苦几天后得以康复,这有时会毁了他们的假期。不过该病毒对婴儿、老人以及免疫力低下的人是致命的。

诺如病毒传染性极高,特别是在一些类似于船舶的狭窄环境中。不过它是如何传播的仍是个谜。有些人指责那些未洗手就工作的食品制造工人。近日,北卡罗莱纳州的科学家们制造了一个“呕吐机”。研究显示呕吐物的微小传播飞沫可以通过空气传染给其他人,就像是打喷嚏喷出的飞沫一样。

《应用与环境微生物学》杂志上个月发表了一项研究关于诺如病毒的研究。研究人员分析了1,077例携带诺如病毒的牡蛎的基因序列。一些基因序列从1983年就已经存入了基因数据库中。

科学家发现80%已知的在人体上发现的诺如病毒与牡蛎上发现的相匹配。大部分相匹配的牡蛎是来自沿海水域,可能是被人类污水感染。

诺如病毒的突变速度很快,就像是流感病毒一样。新型病毒的出现往往会引起病毒大爆发。研究人员发现,牡蛎间与人际间传播的新型病毒会发生融合。

王永杰是上海海洋大学的食品科学专家,也是该研究的第一作者。他认为牡蛎是人类患有的诺如病毒的重要宿主。从病毒爆发到突变之间,诺如病毒会隐藏其中。大概是人们生吃牡蛎时,牡蛎也可以再次将病毒传回人类。

王博士说,他们仍需要进一步研究出一种方法,以探测牡蛎肉中诺如病毒和牡蛎河床生长环境中的病毒。

来源:纽约时报

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发表于 2016-1-5 11:03:48 | 显示全部楼层
我们实验室曾做过一些猪场的猪诺如病毒的流行病学调查,腹泻猪只的感染率还是占蛮多的

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发表于 2016-2-18 09:31:51 | 显示全部楼层
【标题】:Molecular epidemiology of oyster-related human noroviruses and their global genetic diversity and temporal-geographical distribution from 1983 to 2014
【作者】:Yu, Y.; Cai, H.; Hu, L. (...)
【来源】:Appl Environ Microbiol, 2015, 81(21), 7615-7624
【摘要】:Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of epidemic and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Oysters are well recognized as the main vectors of environmentally transmitted NoVs, and disease outbreaks linked to oyster consumption have been commonly observed. Here, to quantify the genetic diversity, temporal distribution, and circulation of oyster-related NoVs on a global scale,  1,077 oyster-related NoV sequences deposited from 1983 to 2014 were downloaded from both NCBI GenBank and the NoroNet outbreak database and were then screened for quality control. A total of 665 sequences with reliable information were obtained and were subsequently subjected to genotyping and phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the majority of oyster-related NoV sequences were obtained from coastal countries and regions and that the numbers of sequences in  these regions were unevenly distributed. Moreover, >80% of human NoV genotypes were detected in oyster samples or oyster-related outbreaks. A higher proportion  of genogroup I (GI) (34%) was observed for oyster-related sequences than for non-oyster-related outbreaks, where GII strains dominated with an overwhelming majority of >90%, indicating that the prevalences of GI and GII are different in  humans and oysters. In addition, a related convergence of the circulation trend was found between oyster-related NoV sequences and human pandemic outbreaks. This suggests that oysters not only act as a vector of NoV through environmental transmission but also serve as an important reservoir of human NoVs. These results highlight the importance of oysters in the persistence and transmission of human NoVs in the environment and have important implications for the surveillance of human NoVs in oyster samples.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319869?dopt=Abstract

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发表于 2016-11-5 08:28:32 | 显示全部楼层
good work.
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